Periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLF) were shown to have significant incremental proliferation in the first 24 to 48 hours, but leveled off at the 72-hour mark. This is beneficial during the wound-healing process in healing by primary intention to create a shorter junctional-epithelium and cause less apical migration.
Not only does the diode laser affect PDLF in a positive manner, it also affects stem cells. Stem cells taken from the pulp of a permanent tooth were shown to be able to differentiate into osteoblasts, fibroblasts, and cementoblasts: all periodontal tissues needed for dental wound repair. When placed under a microscope after diode laser treatment, there was increased cell proliferation in fibroblasts, endothelial cells, osteoblasts, epithelial cells, and lymphocytes. There is also evidence of mesenchyme, bone marrow, and adipose tissue stem cell proliferation, but they were not the focus of the study.
When a diode laser with appropriate wavelength irradiates a targeted site, the energy is then absorbed and produces heat. The diode laser has been used to irradiate at the lowest output level possible without interfering with its functionality within each clinical trial.
By Vanessa Pavicic and Heidi Weber dentistryiq